Helen Monchow, THE USE OF DEED RESTRICTIONS IN SUBDIVISION DEVELOPMENT

Information on Racial Restrictions in the Chicago Area (*)

 
   Name of Subdivision &                   Restrictions
    Subdivider & Location                 On           On
                                       Alienation    Occupancy
   ----------------------              ----------    ---------   
1) Ardmore
    J. R. Robertson & Co.               Caucasions
    Chicago, Ill.                       Only
 
2) Arlington Park
    Laudermilk Realty Co.
    Chicago, IL
 
3) Belmont Country Club                 Caucasians    Caucasians
    A.T. McIntosh Co.                    Only--        Only--
    Chicago, IL                         Condition     Condition
 
4) Devonshire Manor Annex                Caucasians   Caucasians
    Krenn & Dato                          only--       only--
    Chicago, IL                          Condition    Condition
   
5) Devonshire Manor                      Caucasians   Caucasians
    Krenn & Dato                          only--       only--
    Chicago, IL                          Condition    Condition
 
6) Diana Gardens
    S. S. Berry
    Chicago, IL
 
7) Fairview Addition
    Chas P. Gray Co.
    Chicago, IL
 
8) Highland Park Addition                Caucasians   Caucasians
    Krenn & Dato                          only--       only--
    Chicago, IL                          Condition    Condition
 
9) Howard-Lincoln etc. Add'n             Caucasians   Caucasians
    Krenn & Dato                          only--       only--
    Chicago, IL                          Condition    Condition
 
10) Indian Hill Estates                  Caucasians   Caucasians
    Bills Realty Co.                      only         only
    Chicago, IL
 
11) Kenilworth Hghlds. Sub'n             Caucasians
    Wittbold Realty Co.                   only--
    Chicago, IL                          Condition
 
12) A. H. Kraus Co.                      Caucasians   Caucasians
    Chicago, IL                           only--       only--
                                         Condition    Condition
13) Laudermilk Villa
    B.H. Laudermilk Co.                     
    Chicago, IL
 
14) Milwaukee-Howard etc. Sub'n          Caucasians   Caucasians
    Krenn & Dato, Inc.                     only--       only--
    Chicago, IL                          Condition    Condition   
 
15) Westchester
    William Zelosky
    Chicago, IL

Source: Adaption of Table III. Restrictions on Alienation and Occupancy, 47-50. (Non-Chicago area deeds excluded.)

Notes

*Enforcement of deed restrictions included in subdivision agreements was available to all those holding deeds for land in the subdivision for the duration of the restrictions. Monchow writes:

"Enforcement of such restrictions rests on the theory that they indicate a general plan of improvement and purchasers with notice of the plan may by compelled by suit of any owner of a lot covered by this plan to comply with the covenant made by the subdivider-vendor.[25] This right to enforce passes with the land for the duration of the restriction." (20)

[25] Wiegman v. Kusel, 270 Ill. 520

Also,

"Of greater importance is the question of who may enforce these restrictions. The right of enforcement follows the benefited land. Thus restrictions may be classified from the point of view of enforcement under two general headings: (1) restrictions drawn for the benefit of the grant are enforceable by him and his assigns in possession of the benefited property against any or all grantees; and (2) restrictions drawn to carry out a general plan for development are enforceable by any grantee against any other grantee." (22)

Monchow describes the major exception to courts enforcing restrictive covenants:

"...there are times when, although the intention of the parties is clear, and the plan of development is definite, the courts will refuse to enforce restrictions in deeds. The most important instance is that involved when the character of the district has so changed that the enforcement of the restrictions would work a real hardship to the land-owner. For example, a district may be restricted to single-family residences but obviously equity would be endangered if landowners in that area were restricted to the erection of single-family residences after an elevated line had traversed the center of that district." (24)

Monchow also describes the use of "owners' associations" to enforce covenants provisions. She writes:

"Another agency of enforcement which is becoming increasingly important is the owners' association. The efficiency of such an organization as an enforcing agent depends, of course, upon the organization itself, i.e., whether it is an active or only a perfunctory body, whether it is legally constituted or an informal association." (63)

Monchow discusses owners' associations in more detail later in the research report (69-71).


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